216 HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION than this in it. The courtier as such, however important, was not a universal type of man. In Italy in Castiglione's own day, there were some States (like Venice, for instance) where commercial ability counted for more than courtly qualities, and where con- sequently the secretary was more highly esteemed than the courtier; and in the northern lands there were other differences quite as pronounced. That, in spite of this, The Book of the Courtier found a ready welcome throughout Europe and helped to impress the moral and intellectual ideals of the Italian Renais- sance on many generations of the ruling classes everywhere, is only to be explained by the fact that the fundamental attributes of Castiglione's courtier are not the attributes of a single class or of a special social group, but of mankind in all the high possibilities revealed by a great age. 3. THE NEW MOVEMENT IN FRANCE Notwithstanding the proximity of France to Italy, the new learning and the conception of social life that went with it were slow to establish themselves among the French. The university of Paris with its commanding authority kept the schoolmen faithful for long to the studies of the Middle Ages ; and the noble classes, unlike their Italian fellows, generally regarded scholarship as incompatible with military prowess, and were inclined to despise letters. But from the time the French army returned from the expedition to Italy in 1494 with some knowledge of Italian manners and culture, a change came over the temper of the country ; and the Renaissance was just getting under way when the German Reformation took place. Thenceforward the classical studies had not only to be pushed on against the conservative reaction they encountered in other lands, but had to meet a strenuous resistance because of their supposed association with the Protestant doctrines. For a time the issue was doubtful. The university of Paris strove resolutely to dam back the movement by persecuting both religious and academic heretics to the full extent of its powers. It was not till Francis I, aspiring to the role of patron of the humanities in accordance with the precedent of the Italian courts, took the professors of the new learning under his care that the literary renaissance began to occupy a secure position.